The morale basis 3 abstract in this paper i examine ethical issues raised by the application of affirmative action policies in the unites states of america. Affirmative action in the united states is a set of laws, policies, guidelines, and administrative practices intended to end and correct the effects of a specific form of discrimination. The current scope of affirmative-action programmes in the united states of america is best understood as an outgrowth and continuation of a national effort to remedy the subjugation of racial and ethnic minorities and of women.
In the united states, affirmative action was first created by executive order 10925, signed by president john f kennedy in 1961 it required that government employers not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. In the united states, affirmative action in employment and education has been the subject of legal and political controversy, and in 2003, a pair of us supreme court decisions (grutter v bollinger and gratz v. The idea of affirmative action was first introduced by john f kennedy in 1961, with a law which included a provision that government contractors take affirmative action to ensure that applicants. Ofccp has found that when an affirmative action program is approached from this perspective, as a powerful management tool, there is a positive correlation between the presence of affirmative action and the absence of discrimination.
Introduction affirmative action is one of the most highly contested policies in us higher education affirmative action refers to the ability of colleges and universities to act affirmatively with the goal of increasing racial diversity within their institutions. Race-based affirmative action has been losing support in the united states for some time with other colorblind methods of admissions gaining ground but there are still compelling arguments.
However imperfect, affirmative action has made a small dent in the inequities that have characterized the distribution of jobs and educational opportunities in the united states according to the new york times, the percentage of blacks in managerial and technical jobs doubled during the affirmative action years. Justification has not been enough to save affirmative action programs in some states1 this paper is an attempt to explore some of the issues involving any possible moral justification for affirmative action and to offer a possible theory of moral justification. The united states supreme court has handed down each of the following decisions concerning gender discrimination in employment and business activity except a) requiring the federal government to give women equal pay for jobs of comparable worth. Justifying gender-based affirmative action under united states v virginia's exceedingly persuasive justification standard jason m skaggst while affirmative action has been a hot topic over the course of the. Pros and cons of affirmative action 2 the pros and cons of affirmative action in the workplace according to the encarta dictionary, affirmative action (aa) is a policy or program aimed at countering discrimination against minorities and women, especially in employment and education.
- affirmative action - the battles against race-based educational plans california's decision in 1996 to outlaw the use of race in public college admissions was widely viewed as the beginning of the end for affirmative action at public universities all over the united states. In the united states affirmative action is defined19 as the setting of goals and the writing of timetables which should create equality and social balances in the work place affirmative action could be seen as a synonym for positive action 20 positive action should call for. Read a sidebar on affirmative action and public opinion in the hemispherethe americas present many contrasting approaches to affirmative action in the united states, the supreme court reaffirmed its constitutionality, while at the same time narrowing the ability to use race in the fisher v.
For example, both asian and jewish americans have been subject to discrimination in the united states, but they are by and large excluded groups in the affirmative action scheme another hot argument to the issue of determining which groups constitute minority groups is the geographical or regional population. Affirmative action was designed initially to be a program that would encourage minority students to enroll in advanced education programs it leveled the playing field so that poverty wouldn't have to continue to control the life of a student who wished to do something great. E) upheld affirmative action programs, but limited their scope, and outlawed racial quota set-asides c in the case of ________, the supreme court ruled that affirmative action programs were not unconstitutional, but they could not involve a set-aside quota of spots available only to members of particular groups.
Affirmative action may be unconstitutional under the equal protection clause of the fourteenth amendment to the united states constitution likewise, the programs may be illegal under title vi of the civil rights act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination based on race, color or national origin by recipients of federal financial assistance. Affirmative action, in the united states, an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for members of minority groups and for women.
The term affirmative action as used throughout this note refers to policies that advantage racial minorities who are in direct competition with nonminorities for educational and employment positions. An introduction to affirmative action in the united states (2585 words, 6 pages) affirmative action has been the subject of increasing debate and tension in our societyaffirmative action has divided political parties, communities and campuses across thenation. Affirmative action began as a plan to equalize the educational, employment, and contracting opportunities for minorities and women with opportunities given to their white, male counterparts.